Oleo Elvira: Botanical Aspects


The ancient geographical origins of the olive tree point to Palestine, and physical evidence shows they were moved to North Africa. The oldest fossilized remains of the olive tree - from the Paleolithic period - are found there.

Olive cultivation goes back over 5000 years in the Near East. Over the years, farmers have chosen the best trees and olives - leading to a wide range of varieties.

Here we see them: (Mapita situado cada oliva)

In Greece: The Korineiki

In Italy: The Corantina and the Cucco

In France: The Tanche

In Tunisia: The Chetoui

In Spain: The Picual and the Hojiblanca

The olive tree, “Oleo Europaea L.”, belongs to the Oleaceae botanical family. Many of these species contain oil in their fruit and flowers, and normally grow in the form of shrub-trees. The olive is a dicotyledonous plant with a variety of forms.

Cultivated, as well as wild olive trees fall into the Olea Europaea L. genus. The wild species belong to the Sylvestris variety, while the cultivated olive trees belong to the Sativa.

• The cultivated olive tree is obtained by vegetative propagation of the acebuche, or wild olive.

  1. There is a wide range of varieties within the Olea Eropaea species. There are over 250 on the Iberian peninsula alone, which also produce a wide variety of oils.

Over 90% of the olive plantations are concentrated along the Mediterranean basin, but olive cultivation has also spread to America, Asia and Australia.